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. 2019;25(16):1809-1816.
doi: 10.2174/1381612825666190702095612.

Essential Oil and Ethanol Extract of Oregano (Origanum Vulgare L.) From Armenian Flora as a Natural Source of Terpenes, Flavonoids and Other Phytochemicals With Antiradical, Antioxidant, Metal Chelating, Tyrosinase Inhibitory and Antibacterial Activity

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Essential Oil and Ethanol Extract of Oregano (Origanum Vulgare L.) From Armenian Flora as a Natural Source of Terpenes, Flavonoids and Other Phytochemicals With Antiradical, Antioxidant, Metal Chelating, Tyrosinase Inhibitory and Antibacterial Activity

Armenuhi Moghrovyan et al. Curr Pharm Des. .

Abstract

Background: Origanum vulgare is used in Armenian cuisine as well as in folk medicine. The aim of this investigation was to determine the peculiarities of the chemical composition of Armenian flora's oregano essential oil (EO) and ethanol extract (EE) and to characterize mainly antioxidant and antibacterial properties in vitro.

Methods: EO of plant aerial parts was extracted by the hydro-distillation method, and the composition was analyzed by gas-chromatography (GC). EE was prepared using ethanol as a solvent. Antioxidant, antibacterial and other biological activity of EO and EE was determined using appropriate methods.

Results: The terpenes were found to be the greatest part of oregano EO (β-caryophyllene epoxide - 13.3 %; β- caryophyllene -8.2 %; ο-cymene - 5.2 %). The flavonoid content of EE was 3.9±0.7 mg g-1 catechin equivalents. Antiradical activities of EO and EE expressed with half-maximum inhibitory concentrations were 1057 µg mL-1 and 19.97 µg mL-1. The antioxidant index in the case of using extract (1000 µg mL-1) was 77.3±1.5 %. The metal chelating activity of EE was 74.5±0.2 %. The tyrosinase inhibitory activities of EO, EE and arbutin were 26.5±0.3 %, 6.5±0.2 % and 50±0.1 %, respectively. Both EO and EE of oregano were able to suppress the growth of testmicroorganisms including clinical pathogen isolates, but have moderate antimicrobial activity. EO antibacterial activity against ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli was similar to the activity against non-resistant strain. EE was not active against ampicillin-resistant E. coli in contrast to non-resistant one.

Conclusion: The results indicate high antioxidant and moderate antibacterial as well as high antiradical, metal chelating, tyrosinase inhibitory activity of oregano EO and EE, which can be used as a natural source of terpenes, flavonoids and other phytochemicals in medicine, pharmaceutics, cosmetics and food industry. EO has antibacterial activity also against ampicillin-resistant E. coli.

Keywords: Oregano; antioxidant and antibacterial activity; antiradical; essential oils and ethanol extracts; terpenes and flavonoids; tyrosinase inhibition..

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