Functional immune response to influenza H1N1 in children and adults after live attenuated influenza virus vaccination

Scand J Immunol. 2019 Oct;90(4):e12801. doi: 10.1111/sji.12801. Epub 2019 Sep 2.


Influenza virus is a major respiratory pathogen, and vaccination is the main method of prophylaxis. In 2012, the trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was licensed in Europe for use in children. Vaccine-induced antibodies directed against the main viral surface glycoproteins, haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) play important roles in limiting virus infection. The objective of this study was to dissect the influenza-specific antibody responses in children and adults, and T cell responses in children induced after LAIV immunization to the A/H1N1 virus. Blood samples were collected pre- and at 28 and 56 days post-vaccination from 20 children and 20 adults. No increase in micro-neutralization (MN) antibodies against A/H1N1 was observed after vaccination. A/H1N1 stalk-specific neutralizing and NA-inhibiting (NI) antibodies were boosted in children after LAIV. Interferon γ-producing T cells increased significantly in children, and antibody-dependent cellular-mediated cytotoxic (ADCC) cell activity increased slightly in children after vaccination, although this change was not significant. The results indicate that the NI assay is more sensitive to qualitative changes in serum antibodies after LAIV. There was a considerable difference in the immune response in children and adults after vaccination, which may be related to priming and previous influenza history. Our findings warrant further studies for evaluating LAIV vaccination immunogenicity.

Keywords: LAIV; adults; children; immune response; influenza A/H1N1.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing / blood
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Child
  • Female
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Humoral
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / physiology*
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Influenza, Human / immunology*
  • Male
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / immunology*


  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Attenuated