Smoking as risk factor for carpal tunnel syndrome: A birth cohort study

Muscle Nerve. 2019 Sep;60(3):299-304. doi: 10.1002/mus.26627. Epub 2019 Jul 21.


Background: Our aim was to determine whether maternal smoking and offspring's own smoking affect the offspring's risk for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).

Method: The study sample consisted of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (N = 8703). Information on maternal smoking was collected from the participants' mothers. At 31 years, information on smoking, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and long-term illnesses were collected, combined with data of CTS diagnoses from the Care Register for Health Care (1997-2016).

Results: Maternal smoking was not associated with increased risk of CTS in offspring. Before the age of 31 years, smoking ≤10 pack years (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-2.15) and >10 pack years (HR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.20-3.01) among women, and >10 pack years (HR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.14-3.12) among men was associated with CTS compared with nonsmokers.

Conclusions: In this birth cohort, offsprings' own smoking was associated with CTS; however, maternal smoking was not.

Keywords: birth cohort; carpal tunnel syndrome; epidemiology; tobacco; upper extremity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome / etiology*
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mothers*
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*