Proposal of classification of "chronic kidney disease (CKD) with diabetes" in clinical setting

Diabetol Int. 2019 Apr 29;10(3):180-182. doi: 10.1007/s13340-019-00396-8. eCollection 2019 Jul.


The natural history of typical and classical "diabetic nephropathy" has been described as high levels of albuminuria and subsequent renal function decline. However, recent decades, the cases, who show the reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) without the progression of albuminuria, has been increased. "Diabetic kidney disease (DKD)" is a concept that widely recognizes the pathophysiological change induced by diabetes as the onset and progressive factor of renal injury and renal function decline, regardless of the level of albuminuria. However, we may confuse that "chronic kidney disease (CKD) with diabetes" is "DKD". Therefore, to choose the appropriate treatment that should be prioritized in the clinical setting, we propose that "CKD with diabetes" is classified as "DKD", "non-DKD (NDKD) with diabetes" or "combined disease of DKD and NDKD".

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; Diabetes; Diabetic kidney disease; Non-diabetic kidney disease.

Publication types

  • Editorial