This review examines the potential relationship between serum inflammation markers and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inflammation markers have been proposed as prognostic markers for the development of T2DM and its complications. Furthermore, modulation of the inflammatory process may offer future treatment strategies for T2DM. This review focuses on children and adolescents because there is usually little, if any, complications associated with other disease processes, use of medications, or active tobacco smoking. Furthermore, β-cell failure in young age cannot be solely explained by aging and exhaustion of β-cells due to insulin resistance. Pediatric studies have demonstrated that pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IFNγ, PEDF, and fetuin A were increased in insulin resistance, while the anti-inflammatory cytokines adiponectin and omentin were decreased. Furthermore, TNF-α, fetuin A, FGF-21 were altered in obese children with T2DM suggesting a direct involvement in β-cell failure. Future studies focusing on children and adolescents may facilitate our understanding of T2DM as an inflammatory disease process.
Keywords: Adipokines; Children; Diabetes mellitus type 2; Heptokines; Inflammation.
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