Effects of a Personalized VLCKD on Body Composition and Resting Energy Expenditure in the Reversal of Diabetes to Prevent Complications

Nutrients. 2019 Jul 4;11(7):1526. doi: 10.3390/nu11071526.


The reversion of diabetes and the treatment of long-term obesity are difficult challenges. The failure mechanisms of rapid weight loss are mainly related to the wasting of lean mass. This single-arm study aims to evaluate the effects of a very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) on body composition and resting energy expenditure in the short term reversal of diabetes mellitus Type 2. For eight weeks, subjects were administered a personalized VLCKD with protein intake based on lean mass and synthetic amino acidic protein supplementation. Each subject was assessed by anthropometry, Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry(DXA), bioimpedentiometric analysis (BIA), indirect calorimetry, and biochemical analysis. The main findings were the saving of lean mass, the reduction of abdominal fat mass, restored metabolic flexibility, the maintenance of resting energy expenditure, and the reversion of diabetes. These results highlight how the application of preventive, predictive, personalized, and participative medicine to nutrition may be promising for the prevention of diabetes and enhancement of obesity treatment.

Keywords: VLCKD; body composition; diabetes; indirect calorimetry; lean mass; nutrition; obesity; prevention; resting energy expenditure; reversibility.

MeSH terms

  • Abdominal Fat / diagnostic imaging
  • Abdominal Fat / physiopathology*
  • Adiposity*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Caloric Restriction*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diet therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Diet, Diabetic*
  • Diet, Ketogenic*
  • Energy Intake
  • Energy Metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Weight Loss