Individual and Cyclic Estrogenic Profile in Women: Structure and Variability of the Data

Steroids. 2019 Oct;150:108432. doi: 10.1016/j.steroids.2019.108432. Epub 2019 Jul 4.


The concentration of estrogens in the body fluids of women is highly variable, due to the menstrual cycle, circadian oscillations, and other physiological and pathological causes. To date, only the cyclic fluctuations of the principal estrogens (estradiol and estrone) have been studied, with limited outcome of general significance. Aim of the present study was to examine in detail the cyclic variability of a wide estrogens' panel and to interpret it by multivariate statistics. Four estrogens (17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol) and eleven of their metabolites (4-methoxyestrone, 2-methoxyestrone, 16α-hydroxyestrone, 4-hydroxyestrone, 2-hydroxyestrone, 4-methoxyestradiol, 2-methoxyestradiol, 4-hydroxyestradiol, 2-hydroxyestradiol, estriol, 16-epiestriol, and 17-epiestriol) were determined in urine by a gas chromatography - mass spectrometry method, which was developed by design of experiments and fully validated according to ISO 17025 requirements. Then, urine samples collected every morning for a complete menstrual cycle from 9 female volunteers aged 24-35 years (1 parous) were analysed. The resulting three-dimensional data (subjects × days × estrogens) were interpreted using several statistical tools. Parallel Factor Analysis compared the estrogen profiles in order to explore the cyclic and inter-individual variability of each analyte. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) provided clear separation of the sampling days along the cycle, allowing discrimination among the luteal, ovulation, and follicular phases. The scores obtained from PCA were used to build a Linear Discriminant Analysis classification model which enhanced the recognition of the three cycle's phases, yielding an overall classification non-error rate equal to 90%. These statistical models may find prospective application in fertility studies and the investigation of endocrinology disorders and other hormone-dependent diseases.

Keywords: Estrogens; Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); Menstrual cycle; Multivariate statistics; PARAllel FACtor analysis (PARAFAC).

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Estrogens / chemistry*
  • Estrogens / metabolism
  • Estrogens / urine*
  • Female
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Molecular Structure
  • Young Adult


  • Estrogens