Emerging Roles of Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Hypothalamic-Pituitary Function

Neuroendocrinology. 2019;109(3):218-229. doi: 10.1159/000500689. Epub 2019 Jul 5.


Since its initial discovery in the 1940s, research into the physiological actions of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), from its eponymous role in male developmental biology to its routine clinical use in female reproductive health, has undergone a paradigm shifting change. With several exciting studies recently reporting hitherto unforeseen AMH actions at all levels in the hypogonadal-pituitary-gonadal axis, the importance of this hormone for both hypothalamic and pituitary reproductive control is finding increasing support and significance. In this review, we will briefly summarize what is known about the traditional roles and biology of AMH and how this could be integrated with new findings of AMH actions at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. We also synthesize the important findings from these new studies and discuss their potential impact and significance to our understanding of one of the most common reproductive disorders currently affecting women, polycystic ovary syndrome.

Keywords: Anti-Müllerian hormone; Hypothalamic-pituitary function; Polycystic ovary syndrome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone / genetics
  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / metabolism
  • Reproduction / physiology


  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone