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, 13 (3), 470-477

Modifications of Glass Ionomer Cement Powder by Addition of Recently Fabricated Nano-Fillers and Their Effect on the Properties: A Review

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Modifications of Glass Ionomer Cement Powder by Addition of Recently Fabricated Nano-Fillers and Their Effect on the Properties: A Review

Imran Alam Moheet et al. Eur J Dent.

Abstract

The aim of this article is to provide a brief insight regarding the recent studies and their recommendations related to the modifications to glass ionomer cement (GIC) powder in order to improve their properties. An electronic search of publications was made from the year 2000 to 2018. The databases included in the current study were EBSCOhost, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. The inclusion criteria for the current study include publication with abstract or full-text articles, original research, reviews or systematic reviews, in vitro, and in vivo studies that were written in English language. Among these only articles published in peer-reviewed journals were included. Articles published in other languages, with no available abstract and related to other nondentistry fields, were excluded. A detailed review of the recent materials used as a filler phase in GIC powder has revealed that not all modifications produce beneficial results. Recent work has demonstrated that modification of GIC powder with nano-particles has many beneficial effects on the properties of the material. This is due to the increase in surface area and surface energy, along with better particle distribution of the nano-particle. Therefore, more focus should be given on nano-particle having greater chemical affinity for GIC matrix as well as the tooth structure that will enhance the physicochemical properties of GIC.

Conflict of interest statement

The incorporation of various nano-particles into GIC improved the physical–mechanical and antimicrobial properties of the said material. As such, these modifications could be used as additional fillers in GIC. Thus, these modifications could enhance the dental application of GIC as a restorative material.Dr. Luddin reports grants from Fundamental Research Grant Scheme, during the conduct of the study; Dr. Moheet reports grants from Fundamental Research Grant Scheme, during the conduct of the study. The other authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

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Grant support

Funding This work was supported by the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education under Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS/203/PPSG/6171173).
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