Background: There is no consensus on the optimal surgery extent for patients with benign euthyroid asymmetric nodular goitre (AMNG).
Methods: We reviewed medical literature using the PubMed engine to address the following issues: definition and prevalence, rationale for hemithyroidectomy, long-term outcomes, follow-up, revision surgery and image-guided thermal ablation of contralateral benign thyroid nodules following hemithyroidectomy for AMNG.
Results: In total, 102 articles were found in MEDLINE using a keyword search strategy; subsequently, we selected 36 articles with clinical pertinence.
Conclusions: AMNG is a common clinical and surgical problem. Depending on the extent of the disease and individual surgeon preferences, either unilateral or bilateral thyroidectomy can be performed. Hemithyroidecomy can be considered for some patients with AMNG and the low risk of recurrent disease as a safer alternative to total thyroidectomy but it requires life-long follow-up, is associated with a higher recurrence risk and a need for revision thyroidectomy in selected subjects.
Keywords: asymmetrical nodular goitre; benign thyroid disease; hemithyroidectomy; thyroid surgery.
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