Anatomy of Classic Bladder Exstrophy: MRI Findings and Surgical Correlation

Curr Urol Rep. 2019 Jul 8;20(9):48. doi: 10.1007/s11934-019-0916-2.


Purpose of review: The exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC) represents a group of congenitally acquired malformations involving the musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems. Classic bladder exstrophy (CBE) is the most common and best studied entity within the EEC. In this review, imaging features of CBE anatomy will be presented with surgical correlation.

Recent findings: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a useful modality for pre- and postnatal assessment of the abdominal wall, pelvic floor, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems of children with CBE. The authors' experience supports use of preoperative MRI, in conjunction with navigational software, as a method for identifying complex CBE anatomy. Imaging facilitates surgical approach and improves visualization of complex anatomy, potentially helping to avoid complications. Continued investigation of imaging guidance in CBE repair is needed as surgical techniques improve.

Keywords: Anatomy; Classic bladder exstrophy; Exstrophy-epispadias complex; Imaging guidance; Magnetic resonance imaging; Surgical repair.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bladder Exstrophy / diagnostic imaging*
  • Bladder Exstrophy / surgery*
  • Epispadias / diagnostic imaging*
  • Epispadias / surgery*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Urologic Surgical Procedures