Neuroendocrine drivers of risk and resilience: The influence of metabolism & mitochondria

Front Neuroendocrinol. 2019 Jul;54:100770. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2019.100770. Epub 2019 Jul 6.


The manifestation of risk versus resilience has been considered from varying perspectives including genetics, epigenetics, early life experiences, and type and intensity of the challenge with which the organism is faced. Although all of these factors are central to determining risk and resilience, the current review focuses on what may be a final common pathway: metabolism. When an organism is faced with a perturbation to the environment, whether internal or external, appropriate energy allocation is essential to resolving the divergence from equilibrium. This review examines the potential role of metabolism in the manifestation of stress-induced neural compromise. In addition, this review details the current state of knowledge on neuroendocrine factors which are poised to set the tone of the metabolic response to a systemic challenge. The goal is to provide an essential framework for understanding stress in a metabolic context and appreciation for key neuroendocrine signals.

Keywords: Allostasis; Homeostasis; Hormones; Metabolism; Mitochondria; Neuroendocrine; Resilience; Risk; Sex differences; Stress.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Allostasis / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Hormones / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / metabolism*
  • Mitochondria / metabolism*
  • Resilience, Psychological*
  • Stress, Psychological / metabolism*


  • Hormones