Measuring chlorophyll fluorescence is a direct and non-destructive way to monitor vegetation. In this paper, the fluorescence retrieval methods from multiple scales, ranging from near the ground to the use of space-borne sensors, are analyzed and summarized in detail. At the leaf-scale, the chlorophyll fluorescence is measured using active and passive technology. Active remote sensing technology uses a fluorimeter to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence, and passive remote sensing technology mainly depends on the sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence filling in the Fraunhofer lines or oxygen absorptions bands. Based on these retrieval principles, many retrieval methods have been developed, including the radiance-based methods and the reflectance-based methods near the ground, as well as physically and statistically-based methods that make use of satellite data. The advantages and disadvantages of different approaches for sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence retrieval are compared and the key issues of the current sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence retrieval algorithms are discussed. Finally, conclusions and key problems are proposed for the future research.
Keywords: Fraunhofer lines; chlorophyll fluorescence; physically-based method; statistically-based method.