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Review
, 21 (8), 37

The Utility of Esophageal Motility Testing in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

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Review

The Utility of Esophageal Motility Testing in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

Stephanie Garbarino et al. Curr Gastroenterol Rep.

Abstract

Purpose of review: Here, we discuss how esophageal motor testing plays important roles in patients with suspected gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In addition to guiding appropriate placement of catheters for ambulatory reflux monitoring, esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) rules out confounding diagnoses, such as achalasia spectrum disorders, that can present with symptoms similar to that of GERD, but are managed very differently.

Recent findings: HRM performed with impedance in the post-prandial setting (PP-HRIM) can assess for rumination syndrome or supragastric belching, which should be directed towards behavioral interventions. The recent GERD Classification of Motor Function recommends a hierarchical approach, focusing on (1) the esophagogastric junction (EGJ), (2) the esophageal body, and (3) esophageal contraction reserve, which can be assessed with provocative maneuvers at HRM, such as multiple rapid swallows (MRS). This approach can inform the appropriate tailoring of antireflux surgery. Novel esophageal motility metrics, such as the EGJ-contractile integral from HRM, or post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave indices from 24-h pH-impedance monitoring, may also assist with GERD diagnosis. Assessment of esophageal motor function can contribute in a significant manner to the care of patients with suspected GERD, particularly when esophageal symptoms do not improve with antisecretory therapy, and/or when surgical or endoscopic antireflux therapies are under consideration.

Keywords: Achalasia; Antireflux surgery (ARS); Esophageal function testing; Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM); Esophageal motor testing; Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); High-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM); Multiple rapid swallows (MRS).

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