Objective: To evaluate the efficiency of percutaneous intratumor laser ablation for fetal solid sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT).
Subjects and methods: We carried out percutaneous ultrasound-guided intratumor laser ablation through a 17-gauge needle using an output of 40 W in 7 fetuses with large solid SCT and reviewed the literature for minimally invasive therapy for this condition.
Results: Laser ablation was carried out at a median gestational age of 20 (range 19-23) weeks, and in all cases there was elimination of obvious vascularization within the tumor and improvement in cardiac function. Three (43%) babies survived and had surgical excision of the tumor within 2 days of birth, 3 liveborn babies died within 5 days of birth and before surgery, and 1 fetus died within 2 weeks after the procedure. In previous series of various percutaneous interventions for predominantly solid SCT the survival rate was 33% (2/6) (95% CI 9.7-70%) for endoscopic laser to superficial vessels, 57% (4/7) (95% CI 25-84%) for intratumor laser, 67% (8/12) (95% CI 39-86%) for intratumor radiofrequency ablation, and 20% (1/5) (95% CI 3.6-62%) for intratumor injection of alcohol.
Conclusions: In solid SCT, the reported survival from intratumor laser or radiofrequency ablation is about 50%, but survival does not mean success, and it remains uncertain whether such interventions are beneficial or not because the number of fetuses is small and there were no controls that were managed expectantly.
Keywords: Fetal therapy; Laser ablation; Minimally invasive fetal surgery; Radiofrequency ablation; Sacrococcygeal teratoma.
© 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel.