Implementation of the World's largest measles-rubella mass vaccination campaign in Bangladesh: a process evaluation

BMC Public Health. 2019 Jul 10;19(1):925. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-7176-4.


Background: Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, supported a mass vaccination Measles-Rubella Campaign (MRC) in Bangladesh during January-February 2014.

Methods: We conducted a mixed-method process evaluation to understand the successes and challenges in implementation of the MRC. We reviewed documents for the MRC and the immunization programme in Bangladesh; observed meetings, vaccination sessions, and health facilities; and conducted 58 key informant interviews, 574 exit interviews with caregivers and 156 brief surveys with stakeholders involved in immunization. Our theory of Change for vaccination delivery guided our assessment of ideal implementation milestones and indicators to compare with the actual implementation processes.

Results: We identified challenges relating to country-wide political unrest, administrative and budgetary delays, shortage of transportation, problems in registration of target populations, and fears about safety of the vaccine. Despite these issues, a number of elements contributed to the successful launch of the MRC. These included: the comprehensive design of the campaign; strong partnerships between immunization authorities in the government system, Alliance partners, and civil society actors; and motivated and skilled health workers at different levels of the health system.

Conclusions: The successful implementation of the MRC in spite of numerous contextual and operational challenges demonstrated the adaptive capacity of the national immunization programme and its partners that has positive implications for future introductions of Gavi-supported vaccines.

Keywords: Bangladesh; Mass vaccination campaign; Measles and rubella; Process evaluation; ‘Gavi’ and ‘immunization’.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Bangladesh
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Mass Vaccination / organization & administration*
  • Measles / prevention & control
  • Measles Vaccine / administration & dosage*
  • Process Assessment, Health Care*
  • Rubella / prevention & control
  • Rubella Vaccine / administration & dosage*


  • Measles Vaccine
  • Rubella Vaccine

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