Emerging agents and regimens for treatment of relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia

Cancer Gene Ther. 2020 Feb;27(1-2):1-14. doi: 10.1038/s41417-019-0119-5. Epub 2019 Jul 11.


Relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia (R/R AML) has complicated pathogenesis. Its treatment is complicated, and the prognosis is poor. So far, there is no consensus on what is the optimal treatment strategy. With the deepening of research, new chemotherapy regimens, new small molecule inhibitors, and immunotherapy have been increasingly applied to clinical trials, providing more possibilities for the treatment of R/R AML. The most effective treatment for patients who achieve complete remission after recurrence is still sequential conditioning therapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Finding the best combination of treatments is still an important goal for the future.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Combined Modality Therapy / methods
  • Combined Modality Therapy / trends
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods*
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / trends
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Immunotherapy / trends
  • Induction Chemotherapy / methods
  • Induction Chemotherapy / trends
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy*
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Transplantation Conditioning / methods
  • Transplantation Conditioning / trends
  • Transplantation, Homologous
  • Treatment Outcome