IL-1 Family Cytokine Regulation of Vascular Permeability and Angiogenesis

Front Immunol. 2019 Jun 25;10:1426. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01426. eCollection 2019.


The IL-1 family of cytokines are well-known for their primary role in initiating inflammatory responses both in response to and acting as danger signals. It has long been established that IL-1 is capable of simultaneously regulating inflammation and angiogenesis, indeed one of IL-1's earliest names was haemopoeitn-1 due to its pro-angiogenic effects. Other IL-1 family cytokines are also known to have roles in mediating angiogenesis, either directly or indirectly via induction of proangiogenic factors such as VEGF. Of note, some of these family members appear to have directly opposing effects in different tissues and pathologies. Here we will review what is known about how the various IL-1 family members regulate vascular permeability and angiogenic function in a range of different tissues, and describe some of the mechanisms employed to achieve these effects.

Keywords: IL-1; IL-18; IL-33; IL-36; angiogensis; vascular permeability.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Capillary Permeability / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Interleukin-1 / immunology*
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / immunology*
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / immunology


  • Interleukin-1
  • VEGFA protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A