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Mechanisms of ROS Regulation of Plant Development and Stress Responses

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Review

Mechanisms of ROS Regulation of Plant Development and Stress Responses

Honglin Huang et al. Front Plant Sci.

Abstract

Plants are subjected to various environmental stresses throughout their life cycle. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in maintaining normal plant growth, and improving their tolerance to stress. This review describes the production and removal of ROS in plants, summarizes recent progress in understanding the role of ROS during plant vegetative apical meristem development, organogenesis, and abiotic stress responses, and some novel findings in recent years are discussed. More importantly, interplay between ROS and epigenetic modifications in regulating gene expression is specifically discussed. To summarize, plants integrate ROS with genetic, epigenetic, hormones and external signals to promote development and environmental adaptation.

Keywords: ROS; epigenetic modification; plant development; regulatory mechanism; stress response.

Figures

FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1
ROS involved in vegetative apical meristem identity in the shoot apical meristem. WUS, WUSCHEL, a regulator maintaining stem cell identity in shoot apical meristem. O2- and H2O2 activate and repress WUS activity to balance stem cell identity and differentiation, respectively. DCC1, a functional thioredoxin that inhibits the accumulation of ROS in the cell, and creates conditions for SAM formation. TCP, TEOSINTE BRANCHED/CYCLOIDEA/PCF, a transcriptional regulator of the cell cycle, is inhibited by higher ROS levels in the SAM. TCPox (TCP in oxidated state)/TCPred (TCP in reduced state) can be regulated by GRX (Glutaredoxin). FtSH4 (also named AtFTSH4), an ATP-dependent mitochondrial protease, associated with internal oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in the SAM. UPB1, transcription factor UPBEAT1, plays an important role in maintaining O2- and H2O2 balance in the RAM. RSL4, ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIXLIKE 4, a bHLH transcription factor, activates ROS-related gene expression and regulates root hair elongation. AIM1, ABNORMAL INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM, regulates ROS levels via the SA synthesis pathway in the RAM. APP1, Arabidopsis thaliana P-loop NTPase1, controls ROS homeostasis in the stem cell niche (SCN) of the root tip. VTC1, an Enzyme Involved in Ascorbate Biosynthesis, regulates H2O2 levels in the RAM. BRI1, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1, and BZR1, BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1, are modified by ROS. QC, quiescent center; BR, brassinosteroids; SA, salicylic acid; GR, glutathione reductase; RH, root hair. Arrows indicate positive regulation. Bars indicate negative regulation. Unbroken lines indicate direct regulation, and broken lines indicate unclear mechanism.

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