The association of positive affect and cardiovascular health in Hispanics/Latinos with chronic kidney disease: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

Prev Med Rep. 2019 Jun 7;15:100916. doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2019.100916. eCollection 2019 Sep.


The beneficial influence of positive affect (e.g., joy) remains unexplored in relation to heart health in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD)-a population at increased risk for poor cardiovascular health (CVH). Therefore, we evaluated the association of positive affect and CVH in a diverse U.S. population of Hispanics/Latinos with CKD. We analyzed cross-sectional data of adults ages 18-74 enrolled between 2008 and 2011 in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos with prevalent CKD (N = 1712). Positively worded items from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used to create a composite positive affect score (0-6; higher scores indicate greater positive affect). Prevalent CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. A composite CVH score was calculated using diet, body mass index, physical activity, cholesterol, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and smoking status. Each metric was defined as ideal, intermediate, or poor to compute an additive score. Linear regression was used for continuous scores of CVH and logistic regression for binary treatment (e.g., ≥4 Ideal). In participants with CKD, each unit increase in the positive affect score was associated with higher CVH scores when modeling CVH as a continuous outcome (β = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.11). Similarly, a 1-unit increase in positive affect was associated with 1.15 times the odds of having >4 (vs. <4) ideal CVH indicators. Positive affect is associated with favorable CVH profiles in Hispanics/Latinos with CKD. Replication and prospective studies are needed to elucidate whether emotional well-being is a potential therapeutic target for intervention.

Keywords: Cardiovascular health; Chronic kidney disease; Hispanics/Latinos; Kidney function; Positive affect; Psychological well-being.