Dairy Product Consumption and Bladder Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

Nutr Cancer. 2020;72(3):377-385. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2019.1637909. Epub 2019 Jul 11.


To explore the potential relationship between dairy product consumption and bladder cancer risk, we retrieved eligible studies published up to March 15, 2018, via online database search and manual review of the selected articles. Summary relative risk (RR) estimates were calculated using random-effects models based on high to low intake values. Inter-study heterogeneity was explored using stratified analyses of study design, geographic region, or whether studies adjusted for the confounders age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and education level. We extracted data from 16 studies on milk (5,193 subjects) and 10 studies on dairy products (20,434 subjects). The total study population included 220,952 individuals. Dairy product intake and bladder cancer risk were significantly associated, and milk intake and bladder cancer risk more so. Stratified analysis revealed that the trend was more pronounced in case-control studies, and in studies with impact factor <3 and in Asia. The relationship was confirmed after adjusting for sex and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale score of 7 and 8. Our study shows an inverse association between milk consumption and bladder cancer risk.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Body Mass Index
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cohort Studies
  • Dairy Products / statistics & numerical data*
  • Diet / methods
  • Educational Status
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Milk / statistics & numerical data*
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / epidemiology*