Gene therapy is now being trialled as a therapeutic option for an expanding number of conditions, based primarily on the successful treatment over the past two decades of patients with specific primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) including severe combined immunodeficiency and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and metabolic conditions such as leukodystrophy. The field has evolved from the use of gammaretroviral vectors to more sophisticated lentiviral platforms that offer an improved biosafety profile alongside greater efficiency for hematopoietic stem cells gene transfer. Here we review more recent developments including licensing of gene therapies, use of gene corrected autologous T cells as an alternative strategy for some PIDs and the potential of targeted gene correction using various gene editing platforms. Given the promising results of recent clinical trials, it is likely that autologous gene therapies will become standard of care for a number of devastating diseases in the coming decade.
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.