Seasonal, Spatial Variation, and Potential Sources of Organochlorine Pesticides in Water and Sediment in the Lower Reaches of the Dong Nai River System in Vietnam

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2019 Nov;77(4):514-526. doi: 10.1007/s00244-019-00653-6. Epub 2019 Jul 11.


The goals of the current study were (1) to examine seasonal and spatial variation of selected OCPs concentrations and (2) to identify potential sources of the pollutants in the lower reaches of the Dong Nai River system. Forty-eight water and sediment samples were taken from 12 stations in the dry and rainy seasons to determine the concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (total DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (total HCHs), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin. The concentrations of total DDTs (0.30), total HCHs (0.29), Aldrin (0.068), heptachlor (0.04, µg L-1) in water, and total DDTs (8.04), total HCHs (4.51), and Aldrin (1.52, µg kg-1) in sediment were significantly higher in the rainy season than in the dry season (0.14, 0.12, 0.008, 0.009 in water and 3.49, 2.29, and 0.4 in sediment, respectively). Cluster analysis grouped 12 sampling stations into 2 groups, of which group 1 (3 stations) had higher concentrations of total DDTs, total HCHs, Aldrin, heptachlor, and dieldrin in both water and sediment than in group 2. Compositional analysis of total DDTs revealed that DDT residue could be decomposed significantly for the past years and that anaerobic decomposition could be predominant. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) indicated that the potential sources of OCPs in the study stations could come from residential and agricultural areas located in the upper catchment or areas surrounding the studied stations. In short, OCPs concentration in the studies area could depend on seasonal, spatial variation, and transport of OCPs from upper parts or surrounding areas.

MeSH terms

  • DDT / analysis
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Geologic Sediments / analysis*
  • Hexachlorocyclohexane / analysis
  • Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated / analysis*
  • Pesticides / analysis*
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Rain
  • Rivers / chemistry*
  • Seasons
  • Spatio-Temporal Analysis
  • Vietnam
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis*


  • Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated
  • Pesticides
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • Hexachlorocyclohexane
  • DDT