Pleiotropic Effects of Epithelial Mesenchymal Crosstalk on Head and Neck Cancer: EMT and beyond

Cancer Microenviron. 2019 Dec;12(2-3):67-76. doi: 10.1007/s12307-019-00228-y. Epub 2019 Jul 11.


Epithelial mesenchymal crosstalk (EMC) describes the interaction of the tumor stroma and associated fibroblasts with epithelial cancer cells. In this study we analysed the effects of EMC on head and neck cancer cells. In tumor cell lines EMC was induced using media conditioned from a mix-culture of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Cell proliferation and chemotherapy response were assessed using direct cell counting. Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry of markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and subsequent TissueFaxs™ acquisition and quantification and western blot analysis were performed. Holotomographic microscopy imaging was used to visualize the effects of EMC on Cisplatin response of SCC-25 cells. EMC induced a hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype in SCC-25 cells with co-expression of vimentin and cytokeratin. This hybrid phenotype was associated with chemotherapy resistance and increased proliferation of the cells. The EMC conditioned medium led to an activation of the IL-6/STAT3 pathway with subsequent phosphorylation of STAT3. EMC induced a hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype in HNSCC cells accompanied by increased therapy resistance and cell proliferation. The IL-6/STAT3 pathway might be one of the major pathways involved in these EMC-related effects.

Keywords: EMT; IL-6; JAK/STAT3/Snail signalling; conditioned medium; radiochemotherapy; therapy resistance.