The adverse health effects of bisphenol A and related toxicity mechanisms

Environ Res. 2019 Sep;176:108575. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108575. Epub 2019 Jul 3.


Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial component commonly used in synthesis of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resin and other polymer materials. Due to its mass productions and widespread applications, the presence of BPA is ubiquitous in the environment. BPA can enter the body via different ways such as digestive tract, respiratory tract and dermal tract. As an endocrine disruptor, BPA has estrogen-like and anti-androgen effects causing damages to different tissues and organs, including reproductive system, immune system and neuroendocrine system, etc. Recently, it has been shown that BPA could induce carcinogenesis and mutagenesis in animal models. Here, the underlying mechanisms of BPA-induced multi-organ toxicity were well summarized, involving the receptor pathways, disruption of neuroendocrine system, inhibition of enzymes, modulation of immune and inflammatory responses, as well as genotoxic and epigenetic mechanisms. The aim of this review is to compile the available current research data regarding BPA and provide an overview of the current status of BPA exposure and relevant health effects covering reproductive, developmental, metabolic, immuno, respiratory, hepatic and renal toxicity and carcinogenesis of BPA. This review provides comprehensive data of BPA toxicity on human health and related mechanisms. We also identify any missing data which should be addressed by further studies.

Keywords: Bisphenol A; Endocrine disruptor; Mechanism; Toxicity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / toxicity*
  • Endocrine Disruptors / toxicity
  • Environmental Pollutants / toxicity*
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Humans
  • Phenols / toxicity*


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Phenols
  • bisphenol A