Phenotypic diversity and correlation with the genotypes of pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Sep 25;32(9):959-967. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2018-0538.


Background Type I pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1) is a rare condition characterised by profound salt wasting, hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis due to renal tubular resistance to aldosterone (PHA1a) or defective sodium epithelial channels (PHA1b or systemic PHA). Our aim was to review the clinical presentation related to the genotype in patients with PHA1. Methods A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken through the British Society of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (BSPED) examining the clinical presentation and management of patients with genetically confirmed PHA1. We also reviewed previously reported patients where genotypic and phenotypic information were reported. Results Genetic confirmation was made in 12 patients with PHA1; four had PHA1a, including one novel mutation in NR3C2; eight had PHA1b, including three with novel mutations in SCNN1A and one novel mutation in SCNN1B. It was impossible to differentiate between types of PHA1 from early clinical presentation or the biochemical and hormonal profile. Patients presenting with missense mutations of SCNN1A and SCNN1B had a less marked rise in serum aldosterone suggesting preservation in sodium epithelial channel function. Conclusions We advocate early genetic testing in patients with presumed PHA1, given the challenges in differentiating between patients with PHA1a and PHA1b. Clinical course differs between patients with NR3C2 and SCNN1A mutations with a poorer prognosis in those with multisystem PHA. There were no obvious genotype-phenotype correlations between mutations on the same gene in our cohort and others, although a lower serum aldosterone may suggest a missense mutation in SCNN1 in patients with PHA1b.

Keywords: NR3C2; SCNN1A; SCNN1B; hyperkalaemia; pseudohypoaldosteronism; salt-wasting.

MeSH terms

  • Aldosterone / blood
  • Biomarkers / analysis*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Epithelial Sodium Channels / genetics*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Mutation, Missense*
  • Phenotype
  • Prognosis
  • Pseudohypoaldosteronism / classification
  • Pseudohypoaldosteronism / genetics*
  • Pseudohypoaldosteronism / pathology
  • Receptors, Mineralocorticoid / genetics*


  • Biomarkers
  • Epithelial Sodium Channels
  • NR3C2 protein, human
  • Receptors, Mineralocorticoid
  • SCNN1B protein, human
  • Aldosterone