At the sites where a vein penetrates through the dura mater, two aspects deserve particular attention: (i) The delineation of the perivascular cleft, a space belonging to the interstitial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartment, toward the interior hemal milieu of the dura mater. (ii) The relationship between the perivascular arachnoid layer and the subdural neurothelium at the point of vascular penetration. These problems were investigated in the rat and in two species of New-World monkeys (Cebus apella, Callitrix jacchus). Concerning the first aspect, tight appositions of meningeal cells to the vessel wall, the basal lamina of which is widened and enriched with microfibrils, prevent communication between the interstitial CSF in the perivascular cleft and the hemal milieu in the dura mater. With reference to the second aspect, the perivascular arachnoid cells are transformed into neurothelial cells at the point where they become exposed to the hemal milieu of the dura mater and subsequently continuous with the subdural neurothelium. Leptomeningeal protrusions encompassing outer CSF space can penetrate into the dura mater. These protrusions may expand and branch repeatedly, forming along the wall of the dural sinus Pacchionian granulations. At these sites, however, the structural integrity of the sinus wall and the Pacchionian granulation is not lost. Numerous vesiculations not only in the sinus and vascular walls, but also in the cellular arrays of the Pacchionian granulations or paravascular leptomeningeal protrusions indicate mechanisms of transcellular fluid transport. Moreover, the texture of the leptomeningeal protrusions favors an additional function of these structures as a "volume" buffer.