Insulin glargine compared to neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin in patients with type-2 diabetes uncontrolled with oral anti-diabetic agents alone in Hong Kong: a cost-effectiveness analysis

Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2019 Jul 2:17:13. doi: 10.1186/s12962-019-0180-9. eCollection 2019.


Background: International guidelines recommend using basal insulin in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus if glycaemic target cannot be attained on non-insulin anti-diabetic drugs. Available choices of basal insulin include intermediate-acting neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin and long-acting insulin analogues like insulin glargine U100. Despite clear advantages of glargine U100, the existing practice in Hong Kong still favours NPH insulin due to lower immediate drug costs.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of insulin glargine U100 compared to NPH insulin in patients with type-2 diabetes uncontrolled with non-insulin anti-diabetic agents alone in Hong Kong.

Methods: The IQVIA™ Core Diabetes Model (CDM) v9.0 was used to conduct the cost-effectiveness analysis of glargine U100 versus NPH. Baseline characteristics were collected from the Hong Kong Diabetes Registry. Efficacy rates were extracted from a published study comparing glargine U100 and NPH in Asia, utilities from published literature, and costs constructed using the Hong Kong Hospital Authority (HA) Gazette (public healthcare setting). The primary outcome was an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER).

Results: Insulin glargine U100 resulted in an ICER of HKD 98,663 per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) gained. The incremental gains in QALY and costs were 0.217 years and HKD 21,360 respectively. Results from scenario and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were consistent with that from base case analysis.

Conclusion: Insulin glargine U100 is a cost-effective treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes compared to NPH insulin in setting in Hong Kong. This was mainly driven by the significantly lower rates of hypoglycaemia of insulin glargine U100 than NPH insulin.

Keywords: CORE Diabetes Model (CDM); Cost-effectiveness; Glargine U100; Neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH); Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).