Protective effects of betanin against paracetamol and diclofenac induced neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption in rats

Biomarkers. 2019 Nov;24(7):645-651. doi: 10.1080/1354750X.2019.1642958. Epub 2019 Aug 5.


Context: Overconsumption of paracetamol (PAR) and diclofenac (DF) have been reported to induce neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption. Objective: The current study was designed to explore the protective potential of betanin against PAR and DF inducing neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption in a rat model. Material and Methods: Forty rats were equally divided into five groups: group I served as control, group II received PAR (400 mg/kg), group III received PAR plus betanin (25 mg/kg), group IV received DF (10 mg/kg) and group V received DF plus betanin orally for 28 consecutive days. Thyroid axis hormones, sex hormone, neurotransmitters, paraoxonase-1, hemeoxygenase-1 and nuclear factor-2 were measured by ELISA. While, the oxidative stress markers were colorimetrically estimated. Moreover, DNA damage and histopathological picture of the brains were investigated. Results: A marked reduction in thyroid axis hormones, brain neurotransmitters and serum testosterone as well as enhanced oxidative stress and brain DNA damage accompanied by drastic changes in the brain histopathological picture were recorded in the challenged PAR and DF groups. Betanin supplementation ameliorated most of the biochemical and histopathological changes induced by PAR or DF. Conclusion: The study suggests betanin of potential protective effects against neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption induced by PAR and DF overconsumption.

Keywords: Paracetamol; betanin; diclofenac; neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption.

MeSH terms

  • Acetaminophen / adverse effects
  • Acetaminophen / toxicity
  • Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Betacyanins / pharmacology*
  • Betacyanins / therapeutic use
  • Brain Chemistry / drug effects
  • DNA Damage / drug effects
  • Diclofenac / adverse effects
  • Diclofenac / toxicity
  • Endocrine Disruptors / pharmacology*
  • Neurotoxicity Syndromes / drug therapy*
  • Neurotoxicity Syndromes / metabolism
  • Neurotoxicity Syndromes / pathology
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Protective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Rats


  • Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Betacyanins
  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Protective Agents
  • Diclofenac
  • Acetaminophen
  • betanin