Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and periodontal disease in postmenopausal women using data from the 4th and 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
Methods: The study included data from 5,482 postmenopausal women aged 45-74 years in the 2007-2012 KNHANES. The use of female HRT for at least one month was reclassified as HRT+/HRT-. The Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) was used to assess periodontal status. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to control selection bias, and factors affecting education, family income, and age of menopause were used as covariates in PSM. A chi-square test was used to confirm the bivariate relationship between the variables. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for confounders (age, education, family income, body mass index, age of menopause, alcohol, smoking, dental clinic visits in the past one year, use of oral care products and frequency of tooth brushing per day).
Results: After adjusting for all covariates, HRT was associated with periodontal disease (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.66-0.94). In particular, the relationship between HRT and periodontal disease was more evident in those with menopause under 45 years of age disease (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.35-0.87).
Conclusions: The results of this study supported that it is important that hormone therapy be actively considered in the policy towards postmenopausal women. Especially, health programs such as hormone replacement therapy, non-smoking, and use of oral care products are needed for women who undergo premature menopause.
Keywords: Hormone replacement therapy; Menopause; Periodontal disease.