Early Post-treatment Prostate-specific Antigen at 4 Weeks and Abiraterone and Enzalutamide Treatment for Advanced Prostate Cancer: An International Collaborative Analysis

Eur Urol Oncol. 2020 Apr;3(2):176-182. doi: 10.1016/j.euo.2019.06.008. Epub 2019 Jul 13.


Background: Declines in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at 12wk are used to evaluate treatment response in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). PSA fall by ≥30% at 4wk (PSA4w30) has been reported to be associated with better outcome in a single-centre cohort study.

Objective: To evaluate clinical relevance of early PSA decline in mCRPC patients treated with next-generation hormonal treatments (NGHTs) such as abiraterone and enzalutamide.

Design, setting, and participants: This was a retrospective multicentre analysis. Eligible patients received NGHT for mCRPC between 6 January 2006 and 31 December 2017 in 13 cancer centres worldwide, and had PSA levels assessed at baseline and at 4 and/or 12wk after treatment. PSA response was defined as a ≥30% decline (progression as a ≥25% increase) from baseline.

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Association with overall survival (OS) was analysed using landmark multivariable Cox regression adjusting for previous chemotherapy, including cancer centre as a shared frailty term.

Results and limitations: We identified 1358 mCRPC patients treated with first-line NGHT (1133 had PSA available at 4wk, and 948 at both 4 and 12wk). Overall, 583 (52%) had a PSA4w30; it was associated with longer OS (median: 23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21-25) compared with no change (median: 17; 95% CI: 15-18) and progression (median: 13; 95% CI: 10-15). A PSA12w30 was associated with lower mortality (median OS 22 vs 14; hazard ratio=0.57; 95% CI=0.48-0.67; p<0.001). PSA4w30 strongly correlated with PSA12w30 (ρ=0.91; 95% CI=0.90-0.92; p<0.001). In total, 432/494 (87%) with a PSA4w30 achieved a PSA12w30. Overall, 11/152 (7%) patients progressing at 4wk had a PSA12w30 (1% of the overall population).

Conclusions: PSA changes in the first 4wk of NGHT therapies are strongly associated with clinical outcome from mCRPC and can help guide early treatment switch decisions.

Patient summary: Prostate-specific antigen changes at 4wk after abiraterone/enzalutamide treatment are important to determine patients' outcome and should be taken into consideration in clinical practice.

Keywords: Abiraterone acetate; Enzalutamide; Overall survival; Prostate cancer; Prostate-specific antigen.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Androstenes / therapeutic use*
  • Benzamides
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nitriles
  • Phenylthiohydantoin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Phenylthiohydantoin / therapeutic use
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / drug therapy*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / mortality
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Analysis
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Androstenes
  • Benzamides
  • Nitriles
  • Phenylthiohydantoin
  • enzalutamide
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • abiraterone