Population Pharmacokinetic Study of Cefazolin Dosage Adaptation in Bacteremia and Infective Endocarditis Based on a Nomogram

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Sep 23;63(10):e00806-19. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00806-19. Print 2019 Oct.


Optimal dosing of continuous-infusion cefazolin can be challenging in patients being treated for bacteremia or infective endocarditis. The aim of this work is to describe and analyze the pharmacokinetics of cefazolin in those patients using a population pharmacokinetics modeling approach and to establish a nomogram to determine the optimal daily dose. Population pharmacokinetics were modeled using the Pmetrics package for R. Plasma concentrations were collected retrospectively from patients treated with continuous-infusion cefazolin for bacteremia or infective endocarditis. The influence of multiple parameters, including renal function, total body weight, body mass index, body surface area (BSA), ideal weight, lean body weight, height, and age, was tested. The probabilities of target attainment for selected target concentrations (40, 60, and 80 mg/liter) were calculated. A dosing nomogram was then developed, using the absolute value of the glomerular filtration rate (aGFR), to determine the optimal daily dose required to achieve the target concentrations in at least 90% of patients. In total, 346 cefazolin plasma concentrations from 162 patients were collected. A one-compartment model best described the data set. The only covariate was aGFR, calculated according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula and the patient's body surface area, for the rate of elimination. Using the nomogram, achieving a cefazolin concentration target of 40 mg/liter with a success rate of at least 90% and with an aGFR of 30, 60, 90, and 120 ml/min requires a daily dose of 2.6, 4.3, 6.1, and 8.0 g/day, respectively. These results confirm the interest of posology adaptation of cefazolin according to aGFR.

Keywords: bacteremia; cefazolin; continuous infusion; infective endocarditis; nonparametric modeling; population pharmacokinetics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Bacteremia / drug therapy*
  • Cefazolin / administration & dosage*
  • Cefazolin / pharmacokinetics*
  • Endocarditis / drug therapy
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial / drug therapy*
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial / microbiology
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nomograms


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Cefazolin