The causes and underlying developmental mechanisms of congenital cardiovascular malformations: a critical review

Am J Med Genet Suppl. 1987;3:411-31. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320280547.


Cardiovascular malformations are the second most common type of birth defect, occurring in 5-8/1,000 livebirths with a still higher prevalence among stillborn infants and spontaneously aborted embryos and fetuses. Dealing effectively with the high frequency of heart defects means reducing the incidence of cardiac malformations in the world. In this paper we cite some of the genetic and environmental risk factors associated with congenital cardiovascular malformations, describe the putative biochemical nature of the genetic predisposition relative to environmentally induced teratogenesis, and either support or discourage the use of available methods as strategies in preventing cardiovascular anomalies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / embryology
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / etiology*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Risk Factors
  • Teratogens


  • Teratogens