Long-term vitamin D and high-dose n-3 fatty acids' supplementation improve markers of cardiometabolic risk in type 2 diabetic patients with CHD

Br J Nutr. 2019 Aug 28;122(4):423-430. doi: 10.1017/S0007114519001132. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Abstract

This study was performed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D and n-3 fatty acids' co-supplementation on markers of cardiometabolic risk in diabetic patients with CHD. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among sixty-one vitamin D-deficient diabetic patients with CHD. At baseline, the range of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in study participants was 6·3-19·9 ng/ml. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups either taking 50 000 IU vitamin D supplements every 2 weeks plus 2× 1000 mg/d n-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil (n 30) or placebo (n 31) for 6 months. Vitamin D and n-3 fatty acids' co-supplementation significantly reduced mean (P = 0·01) and maximum levels of left carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) (P = 0·004), and mean (P = 0·02) and maximum levels of right CIMT (P = 0·003) compared with the placebo. In addition, co-supplementation led to a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (β -0·40 mmol/l; 95 % CI -0·77, -0·03; P = 0·03), insulin (β -1·66 μIU/ml; 95 % CI -2·43, -0·89; P < 0·001), insulin resistance (β -0·49; 95 % CI -0·72, -0·25; P < 0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (β -0·21 mmol/l; 95 % CI -0·41, -0·01; P = 0·04), and a significant increase in insulin sensitivity (β +0·008; 95 % CI 0·004, 0·01; P = 0·001) and HDL-cholesterol (β +0·09 mmol/l; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·17; P = 0·02) compared with the placebo. Additionally, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β -1·56 mg/l; 95 % CI -2·65, -0·48; P = 0·005) was reduced in the supplemented group compared with the placebo group. Overall, vitamin D and n-3 fatty acids' co-supplementation had beneficial effects on markers of cardiometabolic risk.

Keywords: Cardiometabolic risk; Coronary heart disease; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Vitamin D supplementation; n-3 Fatty acids.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Coronary Disease / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / administration & dosage*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Placebos
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • Insulin
  • Placebos
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D