This study was performed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D and n-3 fatty acids' co-supplementation on markers of cardiometabolic risk in diabetic patients with CHD. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among sixty-one vitamin D-deficient diabetic patients with CHD. At baseline, the range of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in study participants was 6·3-19·9 ng/ml. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups either taking 50 000 IU vitamin D supplements every 2 weeks plus 2× 1000 mg/d n-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil (n 30) or placebo (n 31) for 6 months. Vitamin D and n-3 fatty acids' co-supplementation significantly reduced mean (P = 0·01) and maximum levels of left carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) (P = 0·004), and mean (P = 0·02) and maximum levels of right CIMT (P = 0·003) compared with the placebo. In addition, co-supplementation led to a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (β -0·40 mmol/l; 95 % CI -0·77, -0·03; P = 0·03), insulin (β -1·66 μIU/ml; 95 % CI -2·43, -0·89; P < 0·001), insulin resistance (β -0·49; 95 % CI -0·72, -0·25; P < 0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (β -0·21 mmol/l; 95 % CI -0·41, -0·01; P = 0·04), and a significant increase in insulin sensitivity (β +0·008; 95 % CI 0·004, 0·01; P = 0·001) and HDL-cholesterol (β +0·09 mmol/l; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·17; P = 0·02) compared with the placebo. Additionally, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β -1·56 mg/l; 95 % CI -2·65, -0·48; P = 0·005) was reduced in the supplemented group compared with the placebo group. Overall, vitamin D and n-3 fatty acids' co-supplementation had beneficial effects on markers of cardiometabolic risk.
Keywords: Cardiometabolic risk; Coronary heart disease; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Vitamin D supplementation; n-3 Fatty acids.