Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are used as additives in plastics and other applications such as curtains and carpets as a replacement for brominated flame retardants. As such, exposure to PFR mixtures is widespread, with children being more vulnerable than adults to associated health risks such as allergies and inflammation. Oxidative stress is thought to be able to modulate the development of childhood airway inflammation and atopic dermatitis. To evaluate these associations, the present study investigated the relationship between urinary PFR metabolites, their mixtures and urinary oxidative stress biomarkers in children as part of the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. The levels of the oxidative stress biomarkers, such as 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), hexanoyl-lysine (HEL), and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and of 14 PFR metabolites were measured in morning spot urine samples of 7-year-old children (n = 400). Associations between PFR metabolites or PFR metabolite mixtures and oxidative stress biomarkers were examined by multiple regression analysis and weighted quantile sum regression analysis, respectively. We found that the non-chlorinated PFR metabolites, 2-ethylhexyl phenyl phosphate (EHPHP), bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP), and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) were associated with increased levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. Furthermore, the PFR metabolite mixture was associated with increased levels of HEL and HNE, but not 8-OHdG. The combination of elevated top 2 PFR metabolites was not associated with higher urinary oxidative stress marker levels. This is the first study to report associations between urinary PFR metabolites and oxidative stress biomarkers among children.
Keywords: Multiple exposures; Organophosphate flame retardant (PFR); Oxidative stress biomarkers; Urinary metabolites.
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