Background: Definitive treatment strategies for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) have not been developed. Cell-based therapy is an attractive treatment method for intractable diseases in the medical and dental fields; however, approval has been challenging in dentistry. Recently, we developed quality- and quantity (QQ)-controlled peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) that have anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenesis effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of QQ-controlled PBMNC transplantation on BRONJ-like lesions in mice.
Methods: To create high-prevalence BRONJ-like lesions, cyclophosphamide (CY) and zoledronate (ZA) were used with tooth extraction. Drug treatment was performed for 5 weeks. QQ-controlled PBMNC transplantation was performed immediately following tooth extraction of both maxillary first molars at 3 weeks after drug administration. Mice were euthanized at 2 weeks post-extraction. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses, microcomputed tomography assessment, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction evaluation were conducted using maxillae and long bones.
Results: ZA effects on long bones were noted, regardless of CY. Severely inhibited osseous and soft tissue wound healing of tooth extraction sockets was induced by CY/ZA combination therapy, which was diagnosed as BRONJ-like lesions. QQ-controlled PBMNC transplantation reduced BRONJ-like lesions by improving soft tissue healing with increased M1 and M2 macrophages and enhanced neovascularization in the connective tissue of tooth extraction sockets. QQ-controlled PBMNC transplantation also reduced inflammation by decreasing polymorphonuclear cells and TNF-α expression in the tooth extraction sockets. Additionally, QQ-controlled PBMNC transplantation partially improved osseous healing of tooth extraction sockets. Interestingly, only 20,000 QQ-controlled PBMNCs per mouse induced these transplantation effects. QQ-controlled PBMNC transplantation did not affect the systemic microenvironment.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that transplantation of a small amount of QQ-controlled PBMNCs may become novel therapeutic or prevention strategies for BRONJ without any adverse side effects.
Keywords: Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw; Macrophages; Neovascularization; QQ-controlled PBMNCs; Tooth extraction; Transplantation; Wound healing.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Prevalence of Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw-Like Lesions Is Increased in a Chemotherapeutic Dose-Dependent Manner in MiceS Kuroshima et al. Bone 112, 177-186. PMID 29729428.Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) worsens oral health-related quality of life. Most BRONJ occurs in multiple myeloma or metastatic breast cancer pat …
Transplantation of Noncultured Stromal Vascular Fraction Cells of Adipose Tissue Ameliorates Osteonecrosis of the Jaw-Like Lesions in MiceS Kuroshima et al. J Bone Miner Res 33 (1), 154-166. PMID 28902422.The precise pathoetiology and effective treatment strategies for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) remain unknown. Transplantation of noncultured st …
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