CDKL5 deficiency disorder: Relationship between genotype, epilepsy, cortical visual impairment, and development

Epilepsia. 2019 Aug;60(8):1733-1742. doi: 10.1111/epi.16285. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Abstract

Objective: The cyclin-dependent kinase like 5 (CDKL5) gene is a known cause of early onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, also known as CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD). We sought to (1) provide a description of seizure types in patients with CDD, (2) provide an assessment of the frequency of seizure-free periods and cortical visual impairment (CVI), (3) correlate these features with genotype and gender, and (4) correlate these features with developmental milestones.

Methods: This is a cohort study of patients with CDD. Phenotypic features were explored and correlated with gene variant grouping and gender. A developmental score was created based on achieving seven primary milestones. Phenotypic variables were correlated with the developmental score to explore markers of better developmental outcomes. Multivariate linear regression was used to account for age at last visit.

Results: Ninety-two patients with CDD were seen during the enrollment period. Eighteen were male (19%); median age at last visit was 5 years (interquartile range = 2.0-11.0). Eighty-one percent of patients developed epileptic spasms, but only 47% of those also had hypsarrhythmia. Previously described hypermotor-tonic-spasms sequence was seen in only 24% of patients, but 56% of patients had seizures with multiple phases (often tonic and spasms). Forty-three percent of patients experienced a seizure-free period ranging from 1 to >12 months, but only 6% were still seizure-free at the last visit. CVI was present in 75% of all CDD patients. None of these features was associated with genotype group or gender. CVI was correlated with reduced milestone achievement after adjusting for age at last visit and a history of hypsarrhythmia.

Significance: The most common seizure types in CDD are epileptic spasms (often without hypsarrhythmia) and tonic seizures that may cluster together. CVI is a common feature in CDD and is correlated with achieving fewer milestones.

Keywords: CDKL5 deficiency disorder; cortical visual impairment; hypermotor-tonic-spasms sequence; hypsarrhythmia; spasms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Developmental Disabilities / etiology
  • Developmental Disabilities / genetics*
  • Epilepsy / etiology
  • Epilepsy / genetics*
  • Epileptic Syndromes / complications
  • Epileptic Syndromes / genetics*
  • Female
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / physiology
  • Sex Factors
  • Spasms, Infantile / complications
  • Spasms, Infantile / genetics*
  • Vision Disorders / etiology
  • Vision Disorders / genetics*

Substances

  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • CDKL5 protein, human

Supplementary concepts

  • CDKL5 deficiency disorder