Pathogenesis of aplastic anemia

Hematology. 2019 Dec;24(1):559-566. doi: 10.1080/16078454.2019.1642548.


Aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare and life-threatening bone marrow failure (BMF) that results in peripheral blood cytopenia and reduced bone marrow hematopoietic cell proliferation. The symptoms are similar to myelofibrosis, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) making diagnosis of AA complicated. The pathogenesis of AA is complex and its mechanism needs to be deciphered on an individualized basis. This review summarizes several contributions made in trying to understand AA pathogenesis in recent years which may be helpful for the development of personalized therapies for AA.

Keywords: HLA; Hematology; aplastic anemia; clonal hematopoiesis; hematopoietic stem cells; immune function; mesenchymal stem cells; telomere.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anemia, Aplastic / congenital
  • Anemia, Aplastic / epidemiology
  • Anemia, Aplastic / etiology*
  • Anemia, Aplastic / therapy
  • Autoimmunity
  • Bone Marrow / pathology
  • Cellular Microenvironment
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Hematopoiesis
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells / pathology
  • Humans
  • Killer Cells, Natural / immunology
  • Lymphokines / physiology
  • Mutation
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Telomere / ultrastructure


  • Lymphokines