Purpose: To determine the association of serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and vitamin D levels with cognition status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods: A total of 173 patients with T2DM were recruited and divided into mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group (n = 94) and normal cognition (NC) group (n = 79). Levels of IGF-1 and 25(OH)D were measured and compared, and the correlations among IGF-1, 25(OH)D, and cognitive function were analyzed.
Results: Insulin-like growth factor 1 and 25(OH)D levels significantly decreased in MCI group than those in the NC group (both P < .001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that IGF-1 (β = .146, P < .001) and 25(OH)D (β = .199, P < .001) independently predicted Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. Partial least square regression showed that contributions of both 25(OH)D (P < .001) and IGF-1 (P < .001) to MoCA scores were significant, while no cross-effect was observed between them (P = .714).
Conclusions: Low serum IGF-1 and 25(OH)D levels may separately predict poor cognitive performance in patients with diabetes.
Keywords: IGF-1; Montreal Cognitive Assessment; diabetes mellitus; mental status and dementia tests; mild cognitive impairment; type 2; vitamin D.