Update in Cardiac Sarcoidosis

Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2019 Nov;16(11):1341-1350. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201902-119CME.

Abstract

Increasing awareness of cardiac manifestations of sarcoidosis and the widespread availability of advanced imaging tests have led to a tidal wave of interest in a condition that was once considered rare. In this Focused Review, we explore important clinical questions that may confront specialists faced with possible cardiac involvement. In the absence of an ideal reference standard, three main sets of clinical criteria exist: the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare, the Heart Rhythm Society, and the World Association for Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Disorders criteria. Once cardiac sarcoidosis is suspected, clinicians should be familiar with the prevalence of the disease in different clinical scenarios. Before obtaining advanced cardiac imaging, electrocardiogram, ambulatory electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and B-type natriuretic peptide may be useful. The available therapies for cardiac sarcoidosis include immunosuppression, antiarrhythmic medications, heart failure medications, device therapy, ablation therapy, and heart transplantation. Contemporary data suggest that long-term survival in cardiac sarcoidosis is better than previously believed. There is no randomized controlled trial demonstrating benefits of screening, but screening is recommended based on observational data.