Pharmacological Characterization and Investigation of N-Terminal Loop Amino Acids of Adrenomedullin 2 That Are Important for Receptor Activation

Biochemistry. 2019 Aug 13;58(32):3468-3474. doi: 10.1021/acs.biochem.9b00571. Epub 2019 Jul 29.


Adrenomedullin 2 (AM2) is a peptide hormone with potent effects in the cardiovascular system. The N-terminal disulfide loop of AM2 is thought to be important for interacting with its receptors to initiate a signaling response. However, the relative contribution of each amino acid within this region is currently unknown. Thus, the region was investigated using an alanine scanning approach. Two AM2 peptides (AM2-47 and AM2-40) were directly compared at the CGRP, AM1, and AM2 receptors in transfected Cos7 cells and found to have equivalent activity. Analogues of AM2-40 were then synthesized, substituting each individual amino acid within the disulfide loop with alanine. The ability of these analogues to stimulate a cAMP response was evaluated at the CGRP, AM1, and AM2 receptors. AM2-40 L12A and T14A were less able to elicit cAMP responses through all tested receptors. In contrast, AM2-40 G13A was slightly more potent than the unmodified peptide at all tested receptors. Thus, it appears that residues within the disulfide loop region play differential roles in the ability of AM2 to stimulate cAMP production. The data provide the first structure-function investigation of AM2 agonism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenomedullin / chemistry*
  • Adrenomedullin / metabolism*
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • COS Cells
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Cyclic AMP / biosynthesis
  • Humans
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism*


  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Adrenomedullin
  • Cyclic AMP