Invasion and metastasis are hallmarks of cancer. The concept of tumor budding at tumor-host interface has been documented in many carcinomas. A growing body of evidence indicates that tumor budding is a sign of invasion and early step for metastasis of many epithelial cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In addition, recent research has underlined the importance of tumor budding as a promising prognosticator in HNSCC. This review summarizes the findings regarding tumor budding in HNSCC and focuses on the role of tumor budding in invasion and metastasis. Also, we highlight the prognostic significance of tumor budding in HNSCC and its potential for improving clinical decision making in terms of recommending optimal individualized treatment for this patient population.
Keywords: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); invasion; metastasis; tumor budding.
© 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.