Evaluation of Dyslipidaemia Using an Algorithm of Lipid Profile Measures among Newly Diagnosed Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study at Dormaa Presbyterian Hospital, Ghana

Medicina (Kaunas). 2019 Jul 21;55(7):392. doi: 10.3390/medicina55070392.

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Dyslipidaemia and its associated complications have been reported to increase mortality among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. However, there is a dearth of data on the incidence of dyslipidemia among Ghanaian patients with T2DM. This study evaluated dyslipidemia among newly diagnosed T2DM patients at Dormaa Presbyterian Hospital, Ghana. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 215 participants at the Presbyterian Hospital, Dormaa-Ghana. A well-structured questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data. Predisposing factors of dyslipidemia such as BMI, hypertension, and family history of diabetes were also obtained. Lipid profile was performed on the serum obtained from each respondent. Dyslipidaemia was defined as total cholesterol (TC) >200 mg/dL, triglyceride (TG) >150 mg/dL, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) >100 mg/dL, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) <40 in males and <50 mg/dL in females. Combinations of the individual parameters of dyslipidaemia were further evaluated. Results: Of the total (215) participants, 86 (40%) were males and 129 (60%) were females, representing a ratio of 1:1.5. High total cholesterol was more prevalent in females (69.0%) than males (53.5%). Generally, dyslipidaemia was predominant among those aged >40 years, with the exception of increased LDL-c (25.1%), which was higher among the 20-40 years age group. The male participants exhibited significantly (p < 0.001) higher percentages of all combined measures of dyslipidaemia-such as high TG and reduced HDL-c (77.9%), high TG and elevated LDL-c (75.6%) and high LDL and low HDL (65.1%). BMI was significantly associated with HDL levels (p = 0.02), whereas family history of diabetes was associated with TC (p = 0.004) and TG levels (p = 0.019). Conclusion: Combined dyslipidaemia is relatively high among newly diagnosed T2DM patients in Ghana, and in those >40 years. Gender is significantly associated with combined dyslipidaemia in T2DM, and males may be at a higher risk than females. BMI and family history of diabetes are potential risk factors of dyslipidaemia in T2DM.

Keywords: BMI; combined dyslipidemia; diabetes; family history; gender.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Algorithms
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Dyslipidemias / classification*
  • Dyslipidemias / diagnosis
  • Dyslipidemias / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Ghana / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Hypertension / diagnosis
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Lipids / analysis*
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Medical History Taking
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Assessment / methods
  • Risk Assessment / standards*
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires

Substances

  • Lipids