Performing Sparse Regularization and Dimension Reduction Simultaneously in Multimodal Data Fusion

Front Neurosci. 2019 Jul 3;13:642. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00642. eCollection 2019.

Abstract

Collecting multiple modalities of neuroimaging data on the same subject is increasingly becoming the norm in clinical practice and research. Fusing multiple modalities to find related patterns is a challenge in neuroimaging analysis. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is commonly used as a symmetric data fusion technique to find related patterns among multiple modalities. In CCA-based data fusion, principal component analysis (PCA) is frequently applied as a preprocessing step to reduce data dimension followed by CCA on dimension-reduced data. PCA, however, does not differentiate between informative voxels from non-informative voxels in the dimension reduction step. Sparse PCA (sPCA) extends traditional PCA by adding sparse regularization that assigns zero weights to non-informative voxels. In this study, sPCA is incorporated into CCA-based fusion analysis and applied on neuroimaging data. A cross-validation method is developed and validated to optimize the parameters in sPCA. Different simulations are carried out to evaluate the improvement by introducing sparsity constraint to PCA. Four fusion methods including sPCA+CCA, PCA+CCA, parallel ICA and sparse CCA were applied on structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data of mild cognitive impairment subjects and normal controls. Our results indicate that sPCA significantly can reduce the impact of non-informative voxels and lead to improved statistical power in uncovering disease-related patterns by a fusion analysis.

Keywords: CCA; MCI; PCA; canonical correlation analysis; data fusion; mild cognitive impairment; sparse principal component analysis.