Contributions of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and traditional vascular risk factors to peripheral artery disease in women

AIDS. 2019 Nov 1;33(13):2025-2033. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000002319.


Objectives: HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but it is unclear whether HIV and HCV are also associated with peripheral artery disease (PAD). We examined the association of HIV, HCV, and traditional CVD risk factors with PAD in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multicenter US cohort.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, ankle-brachial index was estimated using Doppler ultrasound and manual sphygmomanometer in 1899 participants aged more than 40 years with HIV/HCV coinfection, HCV or HIV monoinfection, or neither infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of PAD (ankle-brachial index ≤0.9) after controlling for demographic, behavioral, and CVD risk factors.

Results: Over two-thirds were African-American, median age was 50 years, and PAD prevalence was 7.7% with little difference by infection status. After multivariable adjustment, neither HIV nor HCV infection was associated with greater odds of PAD. Factors associated with PAD included older age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.01 for age 61-70 vs. 40-50 years; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 3.87], Black race (aOR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.15, 4.63), smoking (aOR: 1.27 per 10-pack-year increment; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.48), and higher SBP (aOR: 1.14 per 10 mmHg; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.28).

Conclusion: The high PAD prevalence in this nationally representative cohort of women with or at risk for HIV is on par with general population studies in individuals a decade older than our study's median age. HIV and HCV infection are not associated with greater PAD risk relative to uninfected women with similar risk factors. Modifiable traditional CVD risk factors may be important early intervention targets in women with and at risk for HIV.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Ankle Brachial Index
  • Coinfection / complications*
  • Coinfection / virology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • Hepatitis C / complications*
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease / diagnosis*
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sphygmomanometers
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler
  • United States / epidemiology