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Enhanced Early Immune Response of Leptospiral Outer Membrane Protein LipL32 Stimulated by Narrow Band Mid-Infrared Exposure

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Enhanced Early Immune Response of Leptospiral Outer Membrane Protein LipL32 Stimulated by Narrow Band Mid-Infrared Exposure

Chung-Hung Hong et al. J Photochem Photobiol B.

Abstract

Previous studies revealed significant impact on cancer cell by mid-infrared (MIR) radiation. However, the effects of narrow band MIR on immune reaction and infectious disease are still unknown. In this study, an enhanced innate immune response was observed through the interaction between Leptospiral outer membrane protein (LipL32) and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Thereafter, human kidney proximal tubular cells (HK-2 cells) initiated a serial reaction of enhanced MCP-1 production. The 6 μm narrow bandwidth light source emitted by waveguide thermal emitter (WTE) was applied to induce carbonyl group (CO bond) stretching vibration during the stage of antigen-receptor complex formation. The amount of MCP-1 gene expression had 2.5 folds increase after narrow band MIR illumination comparing to non-MIR illumination at low dose LipL32 condition. Besides, both ELISA and confocal microscopy results also revealed that the chemokine concentration increased significantly after narrow band MIR illumination either at low or high concentration of LipL32. Furthermore, a specific phenomenon that narrow band MIR can amplify the signal of weak immune response by enhancing sensitivity of the interaction between antigen and receptor was observed. This study exhibits clear evidence that the narrow band MIR exposure can modulate the early immune response of infectious disease and play a potential role to develop host-directed therapy in the future.

Keywords: Early immune response; Host-directed therapy (HDT); LipL32; MCP-1; Narrow band mid-infrared; Photoimmunotherapy.

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