Trans fatty acids and lipid profile: A serious risk factor to cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes

Diabetes Metab Syndr. Mar-Apr 2019;13(2):1643-1647. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2019.03.033. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Abstract

Trans Fatty acids (TFAs) have long been used in food manufacturing due in part to their melting point at room temperature between saturated and unsaturated fats. However, increasing epidemiologic and biochemical evidence suggests that excessive trans fats in the diet are a significant risk factor for cardiovascular events as well as a risk factor for cancer and diabetes. A 2% absolute increase in energy intake from trans-fat has been associated with a 23% increase in cardiovascular risk. They increase the levels of low-density lipoprotein which is bad for health. Moreover, several epidemiological studies have been demonstrated that a high intake of TFAs increases the incidence of cancer and diabetes. On the other hand, total elimination of TFAs is not possible in a balanced diet due to their natural presence in dairy and meat products. Many products with almost 0.5 g trans-fat, if consumed over the course of a day, may approximate or exceed the 2 g maximum as recommended by the American Heart Association. The objective of the review to demonstrate the causal association between trans fatty acid intake and increase the risk of coronary heart disease through their influence on lipoprotein, association with atherosclerosis, stroke, diabetes and cancer.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis; Diabetes; Trans fatty acid.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / pathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus / etiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / pathology
  • Humans
  • Lipids / blood*
  • Neoplasms / blood
  • Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Prognosis
  • Trans Fatty Acids / adverse effects*

Substances

  • Lipids
  • Trans Fatty Acids