Aims/hypothesis: Dietary recommendations for treating type 2 diabetes are unclear but a trend towards recommending a diet reduced in carbohydrate content is acknowledged. We compared a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet with an iso-energetic conventional diabetes (CD) diet to elucidate the effects on glycaemic control and selected cardiovascular risk markers during 6 weeks of full food provision of each diet.
Methods: The primary outcome of the study was change in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes reported in the present paper include glycaemic variables, ectopic fat content and 24 h blood pressure. Eligibility criteria were: men and women with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c 48-97 mmol/mol (6.5-11%), age >18 years, haemoglobin >6/>7 mmol/l (women/men) and eGFR >30 ml min-1 (1.73 m)-2. Participants were randomised by drawing blinded ballots to 6 + 6 weeks of an iso-energetic CRHP vs CD diet in an open label, crossover design aiming at body weight stability. The CRHP/CD diets contained carbohydrate 30/50 energy per cent (E%), protein 30/17E% and fat 40/33E%, respectively. Participants underwent a meal test at the end of each diet period and glycaemic variables, lipid profiles, 24 h blood pressure and ectopic fat including liver and pancreatic fat content were assessed at baseline and at the end of each diet period. Data were collected at Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg and Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev.
Results: Twenty-eight participants completed the study. Fourteen participants carried out 6 weeks of the CRHP intervention followed by 6 weeks of the CD intervention, and 14 participants received the dietary interventions in the reverse order. Compared with a CD diet, a CRHP diet reduced the primary outcome of HbA1c (mean ± SEM: -6.2 ± 0.8 mmol/mol (-0.6 ± 0.1%) vs -0.75 ± 1.0 mmol/mol (-0.1 ± 0.1%); p < 0.001). Nine (out of 37) pre-specified secondary outcomes are reported in the present paper, of which five were significantly different between the diets, (p < 0.05); compared with a CD diet, a CRHP diet reduced the secondary outcomes (mean ± SEM or medians [interquartile range]) of fasting plasma glucose (-0.71 ± 0.20 mmol/l vs 0.03 ± 0.23 mmol/l; p < 0.05), postprandial plasma glucose AUC (9.58 ± 0.29 mmol/l × 240 min vs 11.89 ± 0.43 mmol/l × 240 min; p < 0.001) and net AUC (1.25 ± 0.20 mmol/l × 240 min vs 3.10 ± 0.25 mmol/l × 240 min; p < 0.001), hepatic fat content (-2.4% [-7.8% to -1.0%] vs 0.2% [-2.3% to 0.9%]; p < 0.01) and pancreatic fat content (-1.7% [-3.5% to 0.6%] vs 0.5% [-1.0% to 2.0%]; p < 0.05). Changes in other secondary outcomes, i.e. 24 h blood pressure and muscle-, visceral- or subcutaneous adipose tissue, did not differ between diets.
Conclusions/interpretation: A moderate macronutrient shift by substituting carbohydrates with protein and fat for 6 weeks reduced HbA1c and hepatic fat content in weight stable individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02764021.
Funding: The study was funded by grants from Arla Food for Health; the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen; the Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University; the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen; and Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg.
Keywords: Carbohydrate restriction; Cardiovascular disease; Dietary intervention; Ectopic fat deposition; Glycaemic control; Metabolism; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Nutritional therapy; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Weight stability.