Dynamic simulation of the optimal allocation of water resources via the introduction of integrated water environmental policies in Baoding, China

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Sep;26(26):27516-27533. doi: 10.1007/s11356-019-05537-9. Epub 2019 Jul 23.


With rapid industrialization and urbanization, regional water shortages and water quality deterioration have posed great challenges for the sustainable development of cities in North China, especially those with a large demand for agricultural irrigation water. Based on an input-output analysis, this paper develops a dynamic optimization model consisting of three sub-models and multiple constraint conditions to solve the water crisis of Baoding, a typical city experiencing water shortages and serious water pollution in North China. The water resource carrying capacity (WRCC) indicator is introduced in the analysis of the results to comprehensively assess the effect of integrated water environmental policies (IWEPs) from 2013 to 2025. In the optimal scenario, the annual chemical oxygen demand (COD) discharge and annual water demand in Baoding can be reduced by 2.6% and 0.6%, respectively, with an annual gross regional product (GRP) growth rate of 7.52%. The WRCC can be improved from moderately overloaded to weakly unsaturated, which indicates that water resources can meet the socioeconomic development requirements. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the linear optimization model with input-output analysis in coordinating the relationships among water demand, water environment protection, and economic development, and the IWEPs provide an applicable reference for decision-makers in Baoding and other similar cities in North China to address deteriorating water systems.

Keywords: Baoding; Input-output analysis; Integrated water environmental policies; Linear optimization model; Sustainable development; Water resources optimal allocation.

MeSH terms

  • Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  • China
  • Cities
  • Computer Simulation
  • Conservation of Water Resources / methods*
  • Economic Development
  • Environmental Policy*
  • Models, Theoretical*
  • Resource Allocation
  • Sustainable Development
  • Urbanization
  • Water Pollution
  • Water Quality
  • Water Supply