Objective: This study aimed to identify temporal time trends and risk factors associated with mortality for hospitalized older adults with status epilepticus (SE).
Design: A retrospective study was performed.
Setting: Hospitalized patients were identified utilizing an administrative database-The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 1998 through September 2015.
Patients: Patients were older adults 65 years and older with SE.
Interventions: No interventions were undertaken.
Measurements and main results: Demographic, temporal trends, clinical characteristics, and outcome data were abstracted. The results indicated that hospitalized elderly Americans with SE increased over the 11-year study period. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate risk factors associated with mortality in the study cohort. From the weighted sample, 130,109 subjects were included. Overall mortality was 19%. For age subgroups, the mortality was highest for the >85 years age group (24.1%) compared to the 65-75 years (19%) and 75-85 years (23%) age groups. Among investigated etiologies, the three most common causes of SE were acute ischemic stroke (11.2% of total) followed by non-traumatic brain hemorrhage (5.4%) and malignant brain lesions (4.9%). The highest mortality by etiology was noted for acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) (31.5%), non-traumatic brain hemorrhage (31%), and acute ischemic stroke (AIS) (30.1%). Multivariate analysis indicated that non-survivors when compared to survivors were more like to have the following characteristics: older age group, acute TBI, brain neoplasms, non-traumatic brain hemorrhage, AIS and central nervous system (CNS) infections, and utilization of mechanical ventilation. Associated conditions significantly increasing risk of mortality were sodium imbalance, cardiac arrest, anoxic brain injury, pneumonia, and sepsis. Comorbidities associated with increased risk of mortality included valvular heart disease, renal failure, liver disease, and neoplasms.
Conclusions: The number of hospitalized elderly Americans with SE increased over the 11-year study period. Overall mortality was 19%, with even higher mortality among various patient subsets. Several demographic and co-morbid factors are associated with increased mortality in this age group.
Keywords: older adults; outcomes; status epilepticus.